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Please contact an attorney or other qualified professional for such information. Snodgrass Tower Nashville, TN Services state. The Oak Ridge office will be doing birth certificates Monday thru Friday. The office is located at Emory Valley Road. There is a form that you can download, print and fill out and bring to the office that will expedite the process.
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Call for appointment. For application forms, documentation required, fees and other information visit the U. Department of State Bureau of Consular Affairs.
If a minor is under 16 years of age, both parents must be present, or the parent who is not present must complete a consent form which we can provide or you may download one here. It usually takes 4 to 6 weeks to receive your passport. If you need your passport sooner, you can expedite your application. Expedited applications usually take weeks. Facebook Twitter. The discovery of nuclear fission by German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in , and its theoretical explanation by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch , made the development of an atomic bomb a theoretical possibility.
There were fears that a German atomic bomb project would develop one first, especially among scientists who were refugees from Nazi Germany and other fascist countries. It urged the United States to take steps to acquire stockpiles of uranium ore and accelerate the research of Enrico Fermi and others into nuclear chain reactions. Roosevelt called on Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards to head the Advisory Committee on Uranium to investigate the issues raised by the letter. The committee reported back to Roosevelt in November that uranium "would provide a possible source of bombs with a destructiveness vastly greater than anything now known.
The U. Booth and John Dunning created the first nuclear fission reaction in the Americas, verifying the work of Hahn and Strassmann. The same team subsequently built a series of prototype nuclear reactors or "piles" as Fermi called them in Pupin Hall at Columbia, but were not yet able to achieve a chain reaction. The office was empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research. In Britain, Frisch and Rudolf Peierls at the University of Birmingham had made a breakthrough investigating the critical mass of uranium in June He discovered that the American project was smaller than the British, and not as far advanced.
Oliphant then set out to find out why the committee's findings were apparently being ignored. Lawrence was sufficiently impressed to commence his own research into uranium. He in turn spoke to James B.
Conant , Arthur H. Compton and George B.
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Oliphant's mission was therefore a success; key American physicists were now aware of the potential power of an atomic bomb. Roosevelt chose the Army to run the project rather than the Navy, because the Army had more experience with management of large-scale construction projects. He also agreed to coordinate the effort with that of the British, and on 11 October he sent a message to Prime Minister Winston Churchill , suggesting that they correspond on atomic matters.
The S-1 Committee held its meeting on 18 December "pervaded by an atmosphere of enthusiasm and urgency"  in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States declaration of war upon Japan and then on Germany. Lawrence and his team at the University of California, Berkeley , investigated electromagnetic separation , while Eger Murphree and Jesse Wakefield Beams 's team looked into gaseous diffusion at Columbia University , and Philip Abelson directed research into thermal diffusion at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and later the Naval Research Laboratory.
Meanwhile, there were two lines of research into nuclear reactor technology , with Harold Urey continuing research into heavy water at Columbia, while Arthur Compton brought the scientists working under his supervision from Columbia, California and Princeton University to join his team at the University of Chicago , where he organized the Metallurgical Laboratory in early to study plutonium and reactors using graphite as a neutron moderator.
Styer , the chief of staff of Major General Brehon B. Somervell 's Services of Supply , who had been designated the Army's representative on nuclear matters. Compton asked theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California, Berkeley, to take over research into fast neutron calculations —the key to calculations of critical mass and weapon detonation—from Gregory Breit , who had quit on 18 May because of concerns over lax operational security. Manley , a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory, was assigned to assist Oppenheimer by contacting and coordinating experimental physics groups scattered across the country.
They tentatively confirmed that a fission bomb was theoretically possible. There were still many unknown factors. The properties of pure uranium were relatively unknown, as were those of plutonium, an element that had only been discovered in February by Glenn Seaborg and his team. The scientists at the July Berkeley conference envisioned creating plutonium in nuclear reactors where uranium atoms absorbed neutrons that had been emitted from fissioning uranium atoms.
At this point no reactor had been built, and only tiny quantities of plutonium were available from cyclotrons at institutions such as Washington University in St. The simplest was shooting a "cylindrical plug" into a sphere of "active material" with a "tamper"—dense material that would focus neutrons inward and keep the reacting mass together to increase its efficiency. Tolman , and the possibility of autocatalytic methods , which would increase the efficiency of the bomb as it exploded. Considering the idea of the fission bomb theoretically settled—at least until more experimental data was available—the Berkeley conference then turned in a different direction.
Edward Teller pushed for discussion of a more powerful bomb: the "super", now usually referred to as a " hydrogen bomb ", which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a nuclear fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium. The fusion idea was put aside to concentrate on producing fission bombs. It somehow got into a document that went to Washington" and was "never laid to rest". Marshall to head the Army's part of the project in June Marshall created a liaison office in Washington, D. He had permission to draw on his former command, the Syracuse District, for staff, and he started with Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Nichols , who became his deputy.
Robbins , and his deputy, Colonel Leslie Groves. Reybold, Somervell, and Styer decided to call the project "Development of Substitute Materials", but Groves felt that this would draw attention. Since engineer districts normally carried the name of the city where they were located, Marshall and Groves agreed to name the Army's component of the project the Manhattan District.
This became official on 13 August, when Reybold issued the order creating the new district. Unlike other districts, it had no geographic boundaries, and Marshall had the authority of a division engineer. Development of Substitute Materials remained as the official codename of the project as a whole, but was supplanted over time by "Manhattan".
The War Production Board recommended sites around Knoxville, Tennessee , an isolated area where the Tennessee Valley Authority could supply ample electric power and the rivers could provide cooling water for the reactors. After examining several sites, the survey team selected one near Elza, Tennessee.
Conant advised that it be acquired at once and Styer agreed but Marshall temporized, awaiting the results of Conant's reactor experiments before taking action. Marshall and Nichols began assembling the resources they would need. The first step was to obtain a high priority rating for the project. Clay , the deputy chief of staff at Services and Supply for requirements and resources, felt that the highest rating he could assign was AA-3, although he was willing to provide a AAA rating on request for critical materials if the need arose.
Vannevar Bush became dissatisfied with Colonel Marshall's failure to get the project moving forward expeditiously, specifically the failure to acquire the Tennessee site, the low priority allocated to the project by the Army and the location of his headquarters in New York City. He wanted the project placed under a senior policy committee, with a prestigious officer, preferably Styer, as overall director.
Somervell and Styer selected Groves for the post, informing him on 17 September of this decision, and that General Marshall ordered that he be promoted to brigadier general,  as it was felt that the title "general" would hold more sway with the academic scientists working on the Manhattan Project.
Nelson initially balked but quickly caved in when Groves threatened to go to the President. It soon transpired that for the routine requirements of the project the AAA rating was too high but the AA-3 rating was too low. After a long campaign, Groves finally received AA-1 authority on 1 July Most everything proposed in the Roosevelt administration would have top priority.
That would last for about a week or two and then something else would get top priority". One of Groves' early problems was to find a director for Project Y , the group that would design and build the bomb. The obvious choice was one of the three laboratory heads, Urey, Lawrence, or Compton, but they could not be spared. Compton recommended Oppenheimer, who was already intimately familiar with the bomb design concepts.
However, Oppenheimer had little administrative experience, and, unlike Urey, Lawrence, and Compton, had not won a Nobel Prize , which many scientists felt that the head of such an important laboratory should have. There were also concerns about Oppenheimer's security status, as many of his associates were Communists , including his brother, Frank Oppenheimer ; his wife, Kitty; and his girlfriend, Jean Tatlock. A long conversation on a train in October convinced Groves and Nichols that Oppenheimer thoroughly understood the issues involved in setting up a laboratory in a remote area and should be appointed as its director.
Groves personally waived the security requirements and issued Oppenheimer a clearance on 20 July The British and Americans exchanged nuclear information but did not initially combine their efforts.
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Britain rebuffed attempts by Bush and Conant in to strengthen cooperation with its own project, codenamed Tube Alloys , because it was reluctant to share its technological lead and help the United States develop its own atomic bomb. The United States as a result decided as early as April that if its offer was rejected, they should proceed alone.
As a result, Tube Alloys soon fell behind its American counterpart. We now have a real contribution to make to a 'merger. The opportunity for an equal partnership no longer existed, however, as shown in August when the British unsuccessfully demanded substantial control over the project while paying none of the costs. By the roles of the two countries had reversed from late ;  in January Conant notified the British that they would no longer receive atomic information except in certain areas.
Mackenzie was less surprised, writing "I can't help feeling that the United Kingdom group [over] emphasizes the importance of their contribution as compared with the Americans. The British bargaining position had worsened; the American scientists had decided that the United States no longer needed outside help, and they wanted to prevent Britain exploiting post-war commercial applications of atomic energy.
The committee supported, and Roosevelt agreed to, restricting the flow of information to what Britain could use during the war—especially not bomb design—even if doing so slowed down the American project. By early the British stopped sending research and scientists to America, and as a result the Americans stopped all information sharing.
The British considered ending the supply of Canadian uranium and heavy water to force the Americans to again share, but Canada needed American supplies to produce them. By March Conant decided that British help would benefit some areas of the project.